Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Gaddy, David W. English The logic of function exerted an inevitable influence, however, and as time went by, many tactical organizations at the division and corps level began to develop staff officers who specialized in the work that modern intelligence officers do. Sometimes these officers were aides-decamp, sometimes they were assistant adjutants general, sometimes even chaplains.
AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
This latter group was allowed the status and pay of first lieutenants. An enemy's communications are always a useful target for intelligence collection. Mail may be intercepted intentionally or accidentally, messengers may be captured or subverted, or electronic transmission may be intercepted. During the Civil War, the fluidity of maneuver frequently gave the Union and Confederacy access to the same telegraph lines. Obviously, useful information might be obtained from the opponent's messages. These threats to the security of communication made it necessary for the Confederacy to develop a system for enciphering its important communications, which would incorporate more than one code or cipher method.
There was a need for privacy within the Confederate government.
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It would not do for many functionaries to have access to some messages. The more people who could read some messages, the greater the risk to security. As a result, several cipher methods were used by different bureaus and departments. The personnel who enciphered and deciphered the messages had to be trained, and a procedure had to be developed to keep them apprised of changes in the cipher systems. One of the most common items that was changed was the key word or phrase used in the principal Confederate cipher systems.
These key words might be compromised if enemies who attempted cryptanalysis succeeded in deciphering them. Key words might also be compromised by the capture and successful interrogation of one of the persons who enciphered or deciphered messages. Because of these dangers, it was common practice to change the key words from time to time.
To maintain security, these changes had to be transmitted by special courier. In addition to the creation and management of a cipher system, there had to be an organized method for carrying messages from point to point. In some cases, the normal mails or commercial telegraph could be used, but in many areas only couriers could provide the necessary service.
The most difficult part of the courier service to organize was that part that led across enemy lines. The people engaged in that section of the system had to be recruited carefully to ensure that they were loyal to the Confederacy. They had to be instructed, the type and amount of training depending on the nature of the person's specific job in the courier system. The system also needed to be managed.
Performance had to be checked, sick people replaced, and enemy penetrations avoided. The Confederacy was something of a pioneer in the use of communication on the battlefield. Following the invention of the telegraph in the s, a sizable number of people knew how to use the main-telegraphic codes of the time. Messages could be sent visually using a similar code by the use of signal flags or torches. The signal system made it possible to send messages over considerable distances, over obstacles, or over enemy units.
The personnel to operate this tactical communications system had to be trained in code and in the use of the signal devices. The signal system also required some administration on the battlefield, which meant that a commander's staff must include someone who understood the technology involved and who could take responsibility for technical management of the system. A specialized application of tactical signal capability was supplying blockade-running ships with information, advice, and guidance concerning the Union blockading forces, the location of reefs, mines, and obstacles, and other factors that would help them make a safe entry into port.
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Special signal arrangements had to be made because weather conditions sometimes made it impossible to use the torch system employed by the Confederate army at night. In addition to the tactical signal system, army telegraphers needed to know telegraphic code.
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Some trained telegraph operators could be obtained from the civilian telegraph companies, but the needs of the army were too great to be satisfied from that source alone. New operators needed to be trained, perhaps by the telegraph companies, and made available to support Confederate operations in the field. The technique of determining the organization of enemy forces and keeping track of individual units is commonly called order of battle.
The Confederates, like any modern nation facing a large and powerful enemy, would be better able to understand that enemy and the significance of specific maneuvers if they understood the composition and the history of the enemy units involved. For example, it might be important to know that the th New York Volunteers were part of Henry's brigade. The order-of-battle files might show that this brigade frequently operated on special assignments. If the th regiment was reported to be in a particular area, it might mean that the rest of the brigade was nearby. Such hints could be of immense value in combat.
By the end of the war, the Union had developed an outstanding order-of-battle effort. The system used by the Confederacy is less well known and seems to have differed in some respects, but the Confederates were well aware of the Union effort and had a good understanding of the techniques. Maps are essential to the conduct of modern war, and though the engineers could provide the technical expertise, the production of maps was inescapably an intelligence concern. Maps summarize and display terrain and cultural information that a commander may need to plan and carry out military operations.
Maps are not raw data; they are the product of considerable analysis and refinement of large amounts of other information. Tidwell with James O. Hall and David Winfred Gaddy. Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Buy Online, Pick up in Store is currently unavailable, but this item may be available for in-store purchase. Overview Many Confederates believed that Abraham Lincoln himself was the sponsor of the Union army's heavy destruction of the South. Show More.
The Intelligence Problems of the Confederacy 33 2. The Virginia Connection 51 3. The Secret Signal Corps 80 4. Tactical Intelligence in the Army of Northern Virginia 5. Prisoners of War and the Protection of Richmond 6. Partisans and Irregular Warfare 7. Confederate Operations in Canada 9. Portents Dahlgren's Raid and Its Aftermath It is likely that Booth specifically asked Mudd to provide him with an introduction to Surratt, the daring young blockade runner who knew all the ways out of Maryland into Virginia. This is the same Dr. Samuel A. Weichmann describes Booth at this first meeting:.
I noticed that he was a young man of medium figure, apparently about twenty-eight years of age. A heavy black mustache rendered the pallor of his countenance very noticeable. He possessed an abundance of black curly hair and a voice that was musical and rich in its tones. His bearing was that of a man of the world and a gentleman. In dress, he was faultless.
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Mudd called Booth out into the hallway, where they conversed for about five minutes. Then they called for Surratt, and the three of them conferred in the hall for another several minutes before returning. Mudd apologized to Weichmann, saying that Booth wanted to purchase his farm but would not offer enough for it. Booth and Surratt later offered the identical excuse, with Surratt explaining that the men wanted him as their agent for the transaction — an odd choice considering that Surratt now lived in Washington and had just met Booth.
verrolabapost.ga During the conversation, Booth made marks as if diagramming something on an envelope, while the other two men watched intently. The foursome then adjourned to Dr. Mudd and Weichmann talked together, while Booth and Surratt sat by the hearth. Boone [Booth] and Surratt, were meanwhile having a jolly time together, Boone taking letters and photographs from his pocket and exhibiting them to his companion, who, tossing his head in the air, replied with animated laughter.